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Janez Puhar (1814-1864) Janez Puhar (1814-1864)

 
 
 
Janez Puhar, Avtoportret, originalna fotografija je izgubljena (po negativu preslikave v Narodnem muzeju Slovenije, 14,5 x 9,8 cm, inv. št. F-65 (foto: Tomaž Lauko, NMS)

Janez Puhar, Avtoportret, originalna fotografija je izgubljena (po negativu preslikave v Narodnem muzeju Slovenije, 14,5 x 9,8 cm, inv. št. F-65 (foto: Tomaž Lauko, NMS)

Dokumentarna razstava ob dvestoletnici rojstva prvega slovenskega fotografa in fotografskega izumitelja

Otvoritev: 4. junij ob 19:30. uri

4.6. – 28.6. 2014

Atrij ZRC, Ljubljana

KJE: Novi trg 2, Ljubljana

Janez Puhar je bil rojen v Kranju 26. avgusta 1814. Obiskoval je normalko v Kranju, gimnazijo in teologijo pa v Ljubljani. Leta 1838 je postal župnijski pomočnik. Kot kaplan je služboval v različnih krajih. 7. avgusta 1864 je umrl v Kranju. Janez Puhar se je z dagerotipijo najbrž seznanil že leta 1839. Postopek dagerotipije je obvladal že naslednje leto. Njegove dagerotipije se niso ohranile. V Metliki se je lotil tudi prvih samostojnih poskusov, ki jih je povezal z uporabo stekla. Dagerotipija (unikatna svetlobna slika na posrebreni kovinski podlagi) je bila zahtevna in draga fotografska tehnika. Puhar je odkril cenejši in lažji način fotografiranja s pomočjo steklenih plošč, prekritih z žveplenimi izparinami. S poskusi je nadaljeval v Ljubnem na Gorenjskem in na Bledu.Za rojstni dan Puharjevega izuma velja 19. april 1842. Tedaj je bil Puhar kaplan v Ljubnem na Gorenjskem. Datum navaja Puhar v pismu Avstrijski akademiji znanosti na Dunaju (Arhiv Avstrijske akademije znanosti, Puharjev fascikel pod oznako 18/1851). Puhar je uporabljal žveplene, jodove in bromove pare, živo srebro in alkohol. Fotografiral je s preprostim, ročno narejenim fotografskim aparatom, ki je deloval na principu camere obscure. Aparat je imel lečo iz navadnega stekla. Osvetljevanje je sprva trajalo približno minuto, pri močni svetlobi pa le 15 sekund. Za celoten postopek je potreboval 5 do 8 minut.

Puharjeva posebnost sta bila kemični postopek z žveplenimi izparinami in suh fotografski proces. Uporabljal je pare in ni potreboval kopeli. Dagerotipija je bila fotografija na neprosojni bakreni plošči, zato je bila na njej ujeta zrcalna slika. Puhar je stekleno ploščo po slikanju in fiksiranju obrnil in tako dobil naravno lego motiva. Ohranjenih oziroma znanih je samo šest fotografij, ki jih je Puhar izdelal po lastnem kemičnem postopku (puharotipije ali poznejše izboljšave v tej tehniki). Največ jih hrani Narodni muzej Slovenije v Ljubljani. Puharju je za pet let uspelo prehiteti podoben izum Francoza Abela Niépcea de Saint-Victor (1805–1870), ki v večini svetovne literature velja za izumitelja fotografije na steklo. S svojimi fotografijami sodeloval na svetovnih razstavah v Londonu (1851), New Yorku (1852) in Parizu (1855). Leta 1852 mu je francoska Narodna akademija za kmetijstvo, manufakturo in trgovino (Académie Nationale, Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale) ponudila sprejem med svoje člane in izročila diplomo.

dr. Damir Globočnik

www.zrc-sazu.si

www.gorenjski-muzej.si

Janez Puhar

Janez Puhar, Self-Portrait, original photograph is lost (transformation after the negative in National Museum of Slovenia, 14,5 x 9,8 cm, inventory number F-65 (photo: Tomaž Lauko, NMS)

A documentary exhibition marking the 200th anniversary of the birth of the first Slovenian photographer and photographic inventor

Opening: 4 June at 7.30 pm

4-28 June 2014

ZRC Atrium, Ljubljana

WHERE: Novi trg 2, Ljubljana

Janez Puhar was born on 26 August 1814 in Kranj. He attended Normalschule in Kranj and grammar school in Ljubljana, where he later studied theology. In 1838 he became a parish assistant. He served as a chaplain in various places. He died in Kranj on 7 August 1864. Janez Puhar probably first encountered the daguerreotype back in 1839. He mastered the daguerreotype process the following year. But his daguerreotypes have not survived. While serving in Metlika he undertook the first independent attempts involving glass plates. The daguerreotype (a unique image on a silver-plated metal plate) was a demanding and expensive photographic technique. So Puhar invented a more affordable and simpler way of taking photographs with the help of glass plates treated with sulphur vapours. He continued with his experiments in Ljubno in the Gorenjska region and in Bled.The official date of Puhar’s invention is 19 April 1842. At the time he was a chaplain in Gorenjska. The date is stated in Puhar’s letter to the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna (Archive of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, folder, Puhar 18/1851). Puhar used sulphur, iodine and bromine vapours, mercury and alcohol. Puhar used a simple, hand-made camera similar to camera obscura. The camera had a plain glass lens. The exposure initially lasted for one minute, but later fifteen seconds in strong light sufficed. The whole process took between five and eight minutes.

The special characteristics of Puhar’s work were a chemical process involving sulphur vapours and a dry photographic process. Because he used vapours, he did not need to bathe the plates. The daguerreotype was a photograph on an opaque copper plate, on which a mirror image was captured. After taking a photo and fixing the image, Puhar reversed the glass plate to achieve the natural position of the captured motif. Only six of Puhar’s photographs, created with his own chemical process (the “puhartype” or an improved later version of it), have been preserved and are known today. Most of these are housed at the National Museum of Slovenia. Puhar’s invention predates by five years a similar invention by the Frenchman Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor (1805–1870), a generally acknowledged inventor of glass-plate photography. His photographs were exhibited at the great exhibitions in London (1851), New York (1852) and Paris (1855). In 1852 the French National Academy of Agriculture, Manufacturing and Trade (Académie Nationale, Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale) honoured him with membership and a diploma.

dr. Damir Globočnik

www.zrc-sazu.si

www.gorenjski-muzej.si